Organelles of the plant cell and their functions


The plant cell has 18 different types of organelles¹ with specialized functions.

Below you can find a list will all of them (plant cell organelles and their functions) with and image/diagram to help you visualize where they are and how they look within the cell.



  1. Plasma membrane: Separates the cell from its environment; regulates the movement of materials in and out of the cell.
  2. Mitochondria: Oxidize ATP.
  3. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER): Protein synthesis.
  4. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER): Synthesis of lipids; Drug metabolism.
  5. Nuclear envelope: Segregates chromatin (DNA + Protein) from the cytoplasm.
  6. Nucleolus: Synthesis of ribosomal RNA.
  7. Nucleus: Contains the genes (chromatin).
  8. Golgi Complex: Processes, packages and distributes proteins to other organelles for export.
  9. Cell wall: It confers shape and rigidity; protects the cell from osmotic swelling.
  10. Cytoskeleton: Structural support of cells; facilitates the movement of organelles.
  11. Glioxisome: Contains the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle.
  12. Ribosomes: Protein synthesis.
  13. Plasmodesmata: They allow the passage between two vegetal cells.
  14. Vacuole: Degrades and recycles macromolecules and stores metabolites.
  15. Thylakoids: They synthesize the ATP through light energy.
  16. Starch grain: Temporary carbohydrate store, photosynthesis producer.
  17. Chloroplast: Stores solar energy, produces ATP and carbohydrates.
  18. Peroxisome: They are involved in the catabolism of fatty acids.


Plant cell organelles

Plant cell organelles (image/diagram).


Organelles of the animal cell and their functions



  • Cox, M. y Nelson, D. (2007). Principios de bioquímica (5th edition). Barcelona: Ediciones Omega. (*) Book in Spanish.
  • Kelvinsong (2012). Diagram of a typical animal cell. Retrieved from Wikipedia Commons. Avaliable [HERE].

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