The plant cell has 18 different types of organelles¹ with specialized functions.
Below you can find a list will all of them (plant cell organelles and their functions) with and image/diagram to help you visualize where they are and how they look within the cell.
2. ORGANELLES OF THE PLANT CELL AND THEIR FUNCTION
- Plasma membrane: Separates the cell from its environment; regulates the movement of materials in and out of the cell.
- Mitochondria: Oxidize ATP.
- Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER): Protein synthesis.
- Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER): Synthesis of lipids; Drug metabolism.
- Nuclear envelope: Segregates chromatin (DNA + Protein) from the cytoplasm.
- Nucleolus: Synthesis of ribosomal RNA.
- Nucleus: Contains the genes (chromatin).
- Golgi Complex: Processes, packages and distributes proteins to other organelles for export.
- Cell wall: It confers shape and rigidity; protects the cell from osmotic swelling.
- Cytoskeleton: Structural support of cells; facilitates the movement of organelles.
- Glioxisome: Contains the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle.
- Ribosomes: Protein synthesis.
- Plasmodesmata: They allow the passage between two vegetal cells.
- Vacuole: Degrades and recycles macromolecules and stores metabolites.
- Thylakoids: They synthesize the ATP through light energy.
- Starch grain: Temporary carbohydrate store, photosynthesis producer.
- Chloroplast: Stores solar energy, produces ATP and carbohydrates.
- Peroxisome: They are involved in the catabolism of fatty acids.
- Cox, M. y Nelson, D. (2007). Principios de bioquímica (5th edition). Barcelona: Ediciones Omega. (*) Book in Spanish.
- Kelvinsong (2012). Diagram of a typical animal cell. Retrieved from Wikipedia Commons. Avaliable [HERE].